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When considering at what age a puppy should begin receiving its core vaccines, consider the information from the American Animal Hospital Association stating that the maternal antibodies in a puppy younger than 16 weeks may interfer with the immune response. Bear in mind that there are risks associated with vaccinating as well as risks associated with not vaccinating. Making an informed decision is important. Also, be aware that giving combo vaccines (multi-valent) and/or several shots at once increases the risk of adverse reactions as well as the risk that the vaccines will interfere with each other, resulting in neutralization or negation.
In the August 2008 issue of The Whole Dog Journal, Dr. Ronald Schultz reports in an article entitled, Vaccinations 101, by Lisa Rodier, "Research shows that less than 50 percent of puppies will respond at six weeks; 75 percent at nine weeks; 90 percent at 12 weeks; and by 14 to16 weeks, close to 100 percent will respond. "
In an August 1, 2008 article in DVM360 entitled Vaccination: An Overview,http://veterinarycalendar.dvm360.com....jsp?id=568351 Dr. Melissa Kennedy states: Vaccination of the young begins at 6-8 weeks of age. Multiple boosters are given because maternal immunity interferes with vaccinal response. Because one doesn't know the level in each animal for each pathogen at each time point (and it is not feasible nor cost-effective to measure this), repeated boosters are given until the point when maternal immunity has likely decreased sufficiently to allow induction of immunity, usually at 16-18 weeks of age.
On Page 16 of the of the American Animal Hospital Association's 2003 Canine Vaccine Guidelines, it reports that: When vaccinating an animal, the age of the animal, the animal's immune status, and interference by maternal antibodies in the development of immunity must be considered. Research has demonstrated that the presence of passively acquired maternal antibodies significantly interferes with the immune response to many canine vaccines, including CPV [parvo], CDV [distemper], CAV-2 [hepatitis] and rabies vaccines."
They further state on Page 17 that: "Multiple vaccinations with MLV vaccines are required at various ages only to ensure that one dose of the vaccine reaches the puppy's immune system without interference from passively acquired antibody. Two or more doses of killed vaccines (except rabies) and vectored vaccines are often required to induce an immune response, and both doses should be given at a time when the passively acquired antibody can no longer interfere. Thus, when puppies are first vaccinated at 16 weeks (or more) of age (an age when passively acquired antibodies generally don't cause interference), one does of an MLV vaccine, or two doses of a killed vaccine, are adequate to stimulate an immune response."
The AAHA Canine Vaccine Guidelines also declare on Page 17 that: "If a pup fails to respond, primarily due to interference by passively acquired maternal antibody, it is necessary to revaccinate at a later time to ensure adequate immunity."
On Page 13 of the 2006 American Animal Hospital Association's Canine Vaccine Guidelines, it lists as the most common reason for vaccination failure is "the puppy has a sufficient amount of passively acquired maternal antibody (PAMA) to block the vaccine......" They elaborate by reporting that at the ages of 14 to 16 weeks of age, "PAMA should be at a level that will not block active immunization in most puppies (>95%) when a reliable product is used."
Vaccine Options & Prevention, MATERNAL ANTIBODY: OUR BIGGEST OBSTACLE http://www.marvistavet.com/html/vacc...revention.html
Puppies that were born first or were more aggressive at nursing on the first day, will get more maternal antibody than their littermates.
Mother dogs vaccinated at approximately the time of breeding will have the highest antibody levels to pass on to their puppies.
*** REMEMBER, the more maternal antibody a puppy has,
the less likely a vaccine is to work.
It should be noted that giving vaccine more frequently than every 2 weeks will cause interference between the two vaccines and neither can be expected to be effective. This includes giving vaccines for different infections. Vaccines should be spaced 2-4 weeks apart.
It is commonly held that puppies need a certain number of vaccines for protection to be achieved (usually either 3 or 4 is the “magic” number). The number of vaccines given has nothing to do with protection. In order for protection to be achieved, vaccine must be given when it can penetrate maternal antibody.
Combination Vaccines, Multiple Shots--on Page 16 of the 2003 AAHA Guidelines under Immunological Factors Determining Vaccine Safety, it states that: "Although increasing the number of components in a vaccine may be more convenient for the practitioner or owner, the likelihood for adverse effects may increase. Also, interference can occur among the components. Care must be taken not to administer a product containing too many vaccines simultaneously if adverse events are to be avoided and optimal immune responses are sought. "
The World Small Animal Veterinary Association's 2007 Vaccination Guidelines state on Page 3 that: In situations where, for example, a decision must be made that an individual pet may have to receive only a single core vaccination during its lifetime, the VGG [Vaccination Guidelines Group] would emphasise that this should optimally be given at a time when that animal is most capable of responding immunologically, i.e., at the age of 16 weeks or greater."
Duration of Immunity: The Rabies Vaccine Challenge - Show #185 Animal Talk Radio Show 7/30/08 http://www.blogtalkradio.com/animalt...lenge-Show-186
Duration of Immunity to Canine Vaccines: What We Know and Don't Know, Dr. Ronald Schultz http://www.cedarbayvet.com/duration_of_immunity.htm
What Everyone Needs to Know about Canine Vaccines, Dr. Ronald Schultz
Vaccination: An Overview Dr. Melissa Kennedy, DVM360 http://veterinarycalendar.dvm360.com....jsp?id=568351
World Small Animal Veterinary Association 2007 Vaccine Guidelines http://www.wsava.org/SAC.htm Scroll down to Vaccine Guidelines 2007 (PDF)
The 2003 American Animal Hospital Association's Canine Vaccine Guidelines are accessible online at http://www.leerburg.com/special_report.htm .
The 2006 American Animal Hospital Association's Canine Vaccine Guidelines are downloadable in PDF format at http://www.aahanet.org/PublicDocumen...s06Revised.pdf .
Veterinarian, Dr. Robert Rogers,has an excellent presentation on veterinary vaccines at http://www.newvaccinationprotocols.com/
October 1, 2002 DVM Newsletter article entitled, AVMA, AAHA to Release Vaccine Positions, http://www.dvmnewsmagazine.com/dvm/a...l.jsp?id=35171
July 1, 2003 DVM Newsletter article entitled, What Do We Tell Our Clients?, Developing thorough plan to educate staff on changing vaccine protocols essential for maintaining solid relationships with clients and ensuring quality care http://www.dvmnewsmagazine.com/dvm/a...l.jsp?id=61696
July 1, 2003, DVM Newsletter article, Developing Common Sense Strategies for Fiscal Responsibility: Using an interactive template to plan service protocol changes http://www.dvmnewsmagazine.com/dvm/a...l.jsp?id=61694
Animal Wellness Magazine Article Vol. 8 Issue 6, How Often Does he REALLY Need A Rabies Shot Animal Wellness Magazine - devoted to natural health in animals
The Rabies Challenge Animal Wise Radio Interview
Listen to Animal Wise (scroll down to The Rabies Challenge 12/9/07)
The Vaccine Challenge Animal Talk Naturally Online Radio Show » The Vaccine Challenge - Show #91
Rabies Prevention -- United States, 1991 Recommendations of the Immunization Practices Advisory Committee (ACIP), Center for Disease Control's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly March 22, 1991 / 40(RR03);1-19 http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/00041987.htm "A fully vaccinated dog or cat is unlikely to become infected with rabies, although rare cases have been reported (48). In a nationwide study of rabies among dogs and cats in 1988, only one dog and two cats that were vaccinated contracted rabies (49). All three of these animals had received only single doses of vaccine; no documented vaccine failures occurred among dogs or cats that had received two vaccinations. "
I just want to state again:
NONE OF THE ORGANIZATIONS KRIS QUOTES ADVOCATES WAITING UNTIL 16 WEEKS TO VACCINATE PUPPIES. ZERO. NONE. NEITHER DOES JEAN DODDS.
AAHA, the American Veterinary Medical Association and every vet school in the country advocates vaccinating puppies in 3-4 week intervals beginning at 6-10 weeks of age.
THIS IS A DISSERVICE TO DOG OWNERS BY SOMEONE WHO IS NEITHER VETERINARIAN NOR RESEARCHER. THESE ARE QUOTES TAKEN OUT OF CONTEXT.
Yes, some puppies have maternal antibodies that remain effective until 16 weeks. Some also have antibodies that wane by 10 weeks. Or 8 weeks. Or 12 weeks. Unless you want to pay to titer your dog each week you CANNOT be sure whether or not your puppy is protected.
Kris, I respect what you are doing with the Rabies Challenge Fund - but this is a totally irresponsible and incorrect jumble of excerpts from sources that don't support the title. How can you in good conscience post this?
Only after the last tree has been cut down, only after the last river has been poisoned, only after the last fish has been caught, only then will you find that money cannot be eaten. - Cree prophecy
There is no way I'd ever wait until 16 weeks to give the first vaccine. While I don't believe in over vaccination, I vaccinate my puppies quite aggressively with the last vaccine in the puppy series done at 20 weeks. Knock wood, my puppies have remained healthy while others I've known, not vaccinated as I have done, falling victim to parvo and other diseases.
♣ Laura ♣
8, 12, 16wks here
8, 12, 16 here too. Rabies at 20-24 weeks
As noted in my opening comment (reiterated below), this is information for dog owners to consider when vaccinating their puppies. Every dog's situation is different -- mine for instance, are isolated and do not come into contact with other dogs very often, so their risk of exposure is very different from one in agility, puppy classes, etc.... I do not make recommendations on vaccine protocols, I just give information (links to entire context provided for those interested in reading it) so that dog owners can make informed vaccinal choices.
"When considering at what age a puppy should begin receiving its core vaccines, consider the information from the American Animal Hospital Association stating that the maternal antibodies in a puppy younger than 16 weeks may interfer with the immune response. Bear in mind that there are risks associated with vaccinating as well as risks associated with not vaccinating. Making an informed decision is important."
According to a study published in the January 2010 issue of Journal of Comparative Pathology entitled, Age and Long-term Protective Immunity in Dogs and Cats by Dr. Ronald Schultz, et als., "Old dogs and cats rarely die from vaccine-preventable infectious disease, especially when they have been vaccinated and immunized as young adults (i.e. between 16 weeks and 1 year of age). However, young animals do die, often because vaccines were either not given or not given at an appropriate age (e.g. too early in life in the presence of maternally derived antibody [MDA]).......
The present study examines the DOI for core viral vaccines in dogs that had not been revaccinated for as long as 9 years. These animals had serum antibody to canine distemper virus (CDV), canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) and canine adenovirus type-1 (CAV-1) at levels considered protective and when challenged with these viruses, the dogs resisted infection and/or disease. Thus, even a single dose of modified live virus (MLV) canine core vaccines (against CDV, cav-2 and cpv-2) or MLV feline core vaccines (against feline parvovirus [FPV], feline calicivirus [FCV] and feline herpesvirus [FHV]), when administered at 16 weeks or older, could provide long-term immunity in a very high percentage of animals, while also increasing herd immunity." ScienceDirect - Journal of Comparative Pathology : Age and Long-term Protective Immunity in Dogs and Cats
How careful do we need to be with pups between 8 and 12 weeks for future reference.
Here in N.Z. we do the 3 weeks , then 12 weeks. In the 4 weeks between taking the pup and the vaccination we are advised not to take the pup out. i.e. not let it walk around parks, puppy school and public places until they have had the 12 week vaccination. I was very careful about this being my first dog. When Kassa had her 12 weeks vaccinations the vet said people come into the house who have other dogs and been in parks and have things on their shoes so I didn't need to be as paranoid as I thought I had to.
3 weeks? That's way too early according to the research.
You may find some of the answers you are looking for in the following article: Early Puppy Socialization Classes: Risks vs. Benefits DVM 360 December 1, 2009 Early puppy socialization classes: risks vs. benefits - Veterinary Medicine
I socialed Kassy the day I got her home. People couldn't wait to see her and they took their shoes off and washed their hands before touching her. Yes paranoid and I am not sure it was necessary this is why I asked, as I do intend getting another pup. Erns was 3.5 when I got him so not a problem.
People fell in love with her first sight. If they didn't she would want to know why.
I read the first 6 months is the blue print of their lives and waiting 4 weeks to take her out seemed a waste. So I took her out in a big bag. She loved it. When she got tired she would sleep in the bag. We went on trains, elevators, where ever I thought things might frighten her as she became older.
Once she had the 12 week vaccination she came everywhere with me.By then she was way to heavy and wanted to see the world on her own.
Last edited by kassabella; 05-03-2010 at 07:27 PM.